All nucleated cells in higher vertebrates express MHC class I proteins on their surface (HLA class I in humans), while only a subset of cells (mostly professional antigen-presenting cells) express MHC class II.
Malignant cells, which display tumor-associated peptides on MHC molecules, can be recognized and killed by T cells. There is a growing evidence that the tumor rejection process can be boosted by suitable immunostimulatory approaches, such as treatment with anti-PD-1 antibodies or immunocytokines.
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